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AP经济学复习重点
发布时间: 2015-12-13 11:27

一 课程简介:

经济学的地位在美国很高 ,就如政治是中国学生必修的一门课一样, 经济学是美国学生的必修课程 。当今的生活离不开经济话题,显然无论将来同学选哪个专业,在社会进入哪个行业,懂得一点经济学都是终生受益无穷的。美国AP经济学的考试体系重在对经济学思维的考察,经济学家思考问题的独特性 ,也就是贯穿整个学科边际分析(marginal analysis),所以AP整个培训课程的重点就是强化学生对边际分析的理解,熟悉,并自如运用。只要熟练并掌握这个思维方法,再加上一些基本的专业术语的掌握,拿5分对大部分中国学生的智商来说是一件相当容易的事情。过去的整个学生群体的得分情况,也证实了青岛大学AP中心课堂的效率。仅用一个课程30~60个小时的培训时间,让学生经济学知识基本为零,到简单轻松过关。

二 课程设计

1) 攻破难点: 对大部分学生来说,学不好经济学有如下原因: 科目比较陌生,不像数学、物理等在之前的学习过程中就接触过;专业术语理解不够到位,由于中英文在表达方式上的差异,即使很多同学看翻译中文版也未必能理解到位。因为很多专业术语在翻译的过程当中对它原来词意的表达不够精准;经济学考试属于应用型考试,重在对知识点的运用,这对原理的理解深度提较高的要求,大部分国内考生还是停留在死记硬背 ,题海战术之上 ,这样很可能既费时间,又不一定能取得很好效果;那最后一个无外乎就是不感兴趣,天生厌学。

针对这些难点,青岛大学AP中心经济学课程设计具有如下特点:1)所有的抽象原理和知识点还原到生活,并且不仅还原,而且让学生意识到其中的趣味性和实用性,这样可以提高学生的兴趣和注意力,学习积极性,原来他们所学的东西是在生活当中可以直接找到运用的。2)让学生对感性层面对知识点感同身受之后,对学生加以数学上对这些经济学思维的证明,使那些天生数学好的同学对知识点有更深刻的把握,3)知识点的运用在于梳理脉络, 通过对知识脉络的梳理让同学意思到这是一门不需要死记硬背的课程,关键在于理解,理解到位是运用的前提。

2)把握重点

在整个课程的第一个目的(让同学深刻理解整个学科的知识点)达到之后,那么考试重点和解题技巧,那就是一个很重要的目的了,毕竟拿5分是对同学们来说最直接的收益了。

AP college board 每隔几年会发一个考试大纲,那么整个课程的重点知识点就围绕着考试大纲给同学们讲解,再结合真题,把握几大块常考知识板块 ,几大类常考题型答题技巧 。

最重要的就是对各种市场结构的分析了,上课会以实际经典案例讲解,并附以真题,从理解到运用一步到位。

比如整个考试选择题得分是关键 ,但是题量较大,所以速度是一个关键。大部分分析比较复杂的选择题都是跟几个关键图形联系在一起的,上课会重点让学生理解并对几个关键图形印象深刻。

那么分析题很多时候同学会觉得好像没什么话可说,但是每一个大题实际上都是要求同学写一篇小essay ,上课会重点向同学介绍写好一篇essay的几大要素,比如定义,比如图形,比如常用表达方法,避免一些表达失误 。

三)备考建议

大部分同学在考完SAT之后时间都比较紧,自己去自学的话,时间占用的会较多,考试方向把握不一定准确,理解不一定到位,而且看书的话相对也比较枯燥。那个人强烈建议零基础的同学报一个基础班,有一定基础的同学报一个强化班,用30~60个小时的时间轻松掌握整个课程的精髓,考试的重点,而且学习过程比一个人自学更有趣生动 。上完课程的话,回去再结合真题做一定的练习 ,临考时如果没底气的话可以再报一个模考班或冲刺班,让自己更有信心。

四)课程大纲

Time/3hs

Key contents

1

Basic economic concepts :

  1. Limited resources and unlimited wants resulted in need to make choice

Opportunity cost and trade-off along with PPC

  1. Different types of economy

  2. Efficiency of allocation: what to produce ;how to produce;to whom to distribute them

  3. Absolute advantage and comparative advantage

  4. The importance of property rights

  5. The role of incentives in the functioning of free markets

  6. Principle of marginal analysis

2

The nature and functions of product markets

  1. Supply and demand models

  2. Determinants of supply and demand

  3. Movements along and shifts in the curves

  4. Impact of government policies :Price floor and ceilings taxes tariffs quota subsidies

  5. Consumer and producer surplus

  6. Concept of elasticities PED XED YED PES

3

The nature and functions of product markets

  1. consumer choice :utility ,the law of diminishing marginal utility

  2. utility maximizing conditions,application in consumer decision-making and explaining the law of demand

  3. Incomes,prices and tastes

  4. How to derive an individual demand curve

  5. How individual demand curve and market curve are related

  6. Income and substitution explains the shape of demand curve

4

production and costs

  1. Short-run production function : AP MP

law of diminishing marginal returns
Link between productivity and cost
Relationship among short-run cost : TC
AC MC

  1. Cost minimization

  2. Long-run costs

  3. Economies and diseconomies of scale ,constant returns to scale

5

theory of the firm:

  1. distinction between economic and accounting profits

  2. profit maximizing rule (marginal analysis )

  3. Perfect competition:short-run and long-run equilibrium both for Individual firm and industry

  4. The relationship between MR AR MC AC and profit

  5. Adjustment process to long-run equilibrium

6

theory of the firm:

  1. Sources of monopoly power

  2. The relationship between a monopolistic demand curve and MR curve

  3. compare P and output with those of perfect competition

  4. Al locative efficiency dead weight loss

  5. price discrimination

7

theory of the firm:

  1. Oligopoly interdependency of firms and their tendency to collude

  2. Basic game model payoff based identification of dominant strategies

  3. Monopolistic competition important of product differentiation firms'

Behavior in short run and long run

8

Factor markets:

  1. Labor capital and land

  2. How factors' marginal product and marginal revenue affect the demand for that product .

  3. diminishing marginal returns

  4. The role of factor prices in the allocation of scare resources

9

Factor markets:

  1. Labor market (minimum wages ,unions ,monopsonies and the product market monopolies )

  2. Economic rent and capital price

  3. How determination of factor prices determines the distribution of income and the sources of income inequality .

10

Market failure and the role of government:

  1. Arguments for and against government's intervention in a competitive market

  2. Conditions for economic efficiency marginal social benefit and marginal social cost

  3. Externality public goods and market distribution of income

11

Market failure and the role of government:

  1. Effective of government's policies such as subsidies ,taxes,quantity controls,and public provision of goods and services

  2. Monopoly

12

Market failure and the role of government:

  1. Key measures of income distribution (Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient )

  2. Impact of redistribution of income on economic efficiency

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